ISSN 1121 - 7138

Instructions to Authors

The publication, diffusion, and furtherance of research and study on all aspects of Microbiology and related fields are the chief aims of New Microbiologica. New Microbiologica will publish editorials, minireviews, full-length papers, short communications, case reports and letters relating to all aspects of microbiology and clinical infectious diseases.


Manuscripts submitted to New Microbiologica must constitute original research reports. All authors must have agreed to the submission of a manuscript and are responsible for its content. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining such agreement and for informing the coauthors of the manuscript’s status throughout the submission, review, and publication process. By submission of a manuscript to the journal, the authors guarantee that they have the authority to publish the work and that the manuscript, or one with substantially the same content, was not published previously, is not being considered or published elsewhere. By publishing in New Microbiologica, the authors agree that any virus, plasmids, and other materials such as microbial strains and cell lines newly described in the article are available at reasonable cost to members of the scientific community for noncommercial purposes.

Use of Human Subjects or Animals in Research
Manuscripts containing information related to human or animal use should clearly state that the research has complied with all relevant international guidelines and institutional policies. Copies of these guidelines and policy statements must be available for review by the editor if necessary.

Patient Identification
To protect the privacy of individuals mentioned in clinical studies or case histories and as sources of isolates, do not identify them by their initials, even as part of a strain designation. Change the initials to numerals or use randomly chosen letters. Do not give hospital unit numbers; if a designation is needed, use only the last two digits of the unit.


New Microbiologica levies an article-processing charge for every accepted article, to cover the costs for publication. All accepted articles will be available on line at and you will receive 25 reprints free of charges. The article-processing charge is 60,00 euro/printed page. If the submitting author's is a member of SIVIM (Italian Society of Medical Virology) the cost of the article processing charge is 35 euro/page.


The editors encourage authors to submit manuscripts by e-mail as an attachment in Word or Rich Text Format to

E-mailed manuscripts must be in A4 format, Times New Roman 12 point font, justified and one and a half line-spaced. Figures and tables should be sent as single files whereas legends should be included at the end of the document.
Non-standard characters (Greek letters, mathematical symbols, etc.) should be coded consistently throughout the text. Please make a list of such characters and provide a listing of the codes used.


New Microbiologica accepts editorials, minireviews, full-length papers, short communications, case reports and letters relating to all aspects of microbiology and clinical infectious diseases. Authors are requested to specify if the manuscript is submitted for the basic science track or the clinical track.

Editorials are intended to offer the opportunity to present in brief form (1000 words maximum; up to 15 references; 5-10 key words; summary up to 100 words) the opinion of the editors or editorial board on recent topics related to all fields of Microbiology, Virology and Infectoius Diseases.

Minireviews are expected to be focused discussions of defined topics relevant to microbiologists. In general, they are to be submitted only after invitation by one of the editors of New Microbiologica. Minireviews are not expected to be comprehensive reviews of the literature but rather direct discussions of specific issues, with emphasis on the views of the author(s).

Full-Length Papers
Full papers should be divided into sections with appropriate headings. Their sequence should be as follows: Title page, Summary, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References.

Title page should include a title, the name(s) of all author(s) (first name, middle initial and last name of each author), the affiliation, a running title (do not exceed 54 characters and spaces), and a footnote indicating (by asterisk) to whom correspondence should be sent (with the complete mailing address, a single telephone number, a single fax number, and a single e-mail address). This information will be published in the article as a footnote to facilitate communication, and the e-mail address will be used to notify the corresponding author of availability of proofs and, later, of the PDF file of the published article

Summary. The summary will be published separately by abstracting services and should be complete and understandable without reference to the text. Limit the summary to 200 words or fewer and concisely summarize the basic content of the paper without presenting extensive experimental details. Key words: Key words (3-6) should be provided at the foot of the summary.

Introduction. The introduction should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the rationale for the study.

Materials and Methods. The Materials and Methods section must include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. The sources of all media (i.e., name and location of manufacturer) or components of a new formulation must be provided.

Results. In the Results section, include the rationale or design of the experiments as well as the results; reserve interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible.

Discussion. The Discussion section should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system at hand. It must not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction.

Acknowledgments. The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be specified in the Acknowledgments section.

References References in the text start with the name of the author(s), followed by the publication date in brackets, e.g.: “King (2003) reported that….(King, 2003; White et al., 2005)...” using date order.
More than one paper from the same author in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c, etc., placed after the year of publication. In the text, when referring to a work by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be given followed by et al.
Reference section. Arrange the citations in alphabetical order (letter by letter, ignoring spaces and punctuation) by first author. Provide the names of all authors for each reference.
References to journals should contain names and initials of the author(s), year, article title, abbreviation of the name of the journal according to the List of Serial Title Word Abbreviations (International Serials Data System, 20, rue Bachaumont, 75002 Paris, France, ISBN 2-904938-02-8), volume number and page numbers.
Re M.C., Vitone F., Bon I., Schiavone P., Gibellini D. (2006). Meaning of DNA detection during the follow-up of HIV-1 infected patients: a brief review. New Microbiol. 29, 81-88.
References to books should also include the title (of series and volume), initials and names of the editor(s), publisher, place of publication, year. Cite each listed reference by name and year in the text; when more than six authors have signed the reference, report et al.

Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequences
It is expected that newly determined nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data will be registered and GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers be included in the manuscript no later than the modification stage of the review process.

It is also expected that the sequence data will be released to the public no later than the publication date of the article.
The accession number should be included in a separate paragraph at the end of the Materials and Methods section for full-length papers or at the end of the text for Notes. If conclusions in a manuscript are based on the analysis of sequences and a GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number is not provided at the time of review, authors should provide the sequence data as supplementary material.
It is expected that, when previously published sequence accession numbers are cited in a manuscript, the original citations (e.g., journal articles) will be included in the References section when possible or reasonable.

Short Communications
Short Communications are intended to offer the opportunity to present in brief form noteworthy results of work in progress or technical advancements. Their length should not exceed eight pages of double-spaced typescript. They should not contain more than two tables or two figures or one table and one figure. Materials and methods should be described in the text, not in figure legends or table footnotes.
Short communications are not divided into sections, except for a short summary of not more than 100 words and acknowledgements and references. Acknowledgments should be presented as in full-length papers, but no separate heading is used. The References section is identical to that of full-length papers. Short Communications receive the same review process. They are not published more rapidly than full-length papers and are not considered preliminary communications.

Case Reports
Short articles of a clinical nature which illustrate or illuminate an underlying principle of a disease state, its diagnosis, or its therapy and should not exceed 2000 words.

Brief reports of novel research findings or single interesting cases can be described in a Letter to editors. Length must not exceed 500 words, only one table or figure is permitted, and should be no more than five references. No more than six authors can be included. Comment letters on what has been published in New Microbiologica must reach the journal within four months of publication of the original item. Submit Letters in the same way as full-length papers.

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Published under the Patronage of the Italian National Research Council (C.N.R.) and the Universities of Bologna and Pavia - Italy. Autorizzazione No. 6123, Tribunale di Bologna